LASIK - Eye Conditions

"Refraction" refers to the total process by which the eye focuses light. Three factors determine the eye's refractive power: the curvature of the cornea, the power of the lens and the overall length of the eyeball. When these elements function properly, light focuses sharply on the retina and gives clear vision at all distances without glasses or contact lenses. Focusing or refractive disorders arise when these elements do not work in harmony with each other. In these cases, light does not focus on the retina and a blurred image is perceived at some or all distances.

Myopia / Nearsighted

What is Myopia?
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a common vision condition, or refractive error, that affects nearly 30 percent of the population in the United States. A refractive error means that the shape of your eye doesn't refract the light properly, so the image you see is blurred. Myopia occurs when the curvature of the cornea is too steep or the eyeball is too long, causing light entering the eye to be focused in front of the retina, rather than directly on the retina. Near objects are seen clearly, but objects in the distance appear blurry. For our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be bent or "refracted" so they can focus directly on the retina, the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. Together, the cornea and the lens refract light rays. The retina receives the picture formed by these light rays and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve.
What Causes Myopia?
Myopia is thought to be hereditary. Since the eye continues to grow during childhood, myopia generally continues to develop over the childhood years typically stabilizing by the age of 18.
What Are The Symptoms?
Difficulty seeing objects in the distance while watching television, viewing a movie or looking at the chalkboard, frequent headaches, and eyestrain are common symptoms of myopia.
How Is Myopia Diagnosed?
Myopia is detected during a comprehensive eye exam through a test called refraction. Using a phoropter, an instrument that determines the type and measures the amount of refractive error present, your eye doctor will determine your exact prescription.
What Are The Treatment Options?
Prescription glasses, contact lenses, and LASIK surgery (laser vision correction), Refractive Lens Exchange (RLE) or Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) are treatment options to optically correct myopia.

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Hyperopia / Farsighted

What is Hyperopia?

Hyperopia, or farsightedness, is a common vision condition, or refractive error, that affects nearly 25 percent of the population in the United States. A refractive error means that the shape of your eye doesn't refract the light properly, so that the image you see is blurred. Hyperopia occurs when the curvature of the cornea is shorter than normal of the curvature of the cornea is too flat, causing light entering the eye to be focused behind the retina, rather than directly on the retina. Objects in the distance are seen clearly, but objects close up appear blurry.

For our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be bent or "refracted" so they can focus directly on the retina, the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. Together the cornea and the lens refract light rays. The retina receives the picture formed by these light rays and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve.

What Causes Hyperopia?
Hyperopia is thought to be hereditary and many children are born with farsightedness. Since the eye continues to grow during childhood, many "outgrow" this condition as the eyeball lengthens with normal growth.
What Are The Symptoms?
Common signs include difficulty maintaining a clear focus on near objects, eyestrain, fatigue, headaches after close work, and difficulty concentrating.
How is Hyperopia Diagnosed?
Hyperopia is detected during a comprehensive eye exam through a test called refraction. Using a phoropter, an instrument that determines the type and measures the amount of refractive error present, your eye doctor will determine your exact prescription. In mild cases, your eye may be able to compensate without having to wear corrective lenses. It is important to note that the common vision screenings performed in schools are generally ineffective in detecting hyperopia in children.
What Are The Treatment Options?
Prescription glasses, contact lenses, and LASIK surgery (laser vision correction), Refractive Lens Exchange (RLE) or Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) are treatment options to optically correct hyperopia.

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Astigmatism

What is Astigmatism?
Astigmatism is a common vision condition, or refractive error, that often accompanies myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). A refractive error means that the shape of your eye doesn't refract the light properly, so that the image you see is blurred. Astigmatism occurs when the curvature of the cornea is irregularly shaped, scattering light rays entering the eye so that they are focused both in front of and behind the retina, rather than directly on the retina. Vision is blurred at all distances. For our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be bent or "refracted" so they can focus directly on the retina, the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. Together the cornea and the lens refract light rays. The retina receives the picture formed by these light rays and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve.
What causes Astigmatism?
Astigmatism results when the eye is shaped more like a football than a baseball, which is the normal shape of the eye. Many people are born with this oblong shape and the resulting vision problem may get worse over time.
What are the symptoms?
Common symptoms of astigmatism include difficulty maintaining a clear focus on both near and far objects, eyestrain, fatigue, and headaches.
How is Astigmatism diagnosed?
Astigmatism is detected during a comprehensive eye exam through a test called refraction. Using a phoropter, an instrument that determines the type and measures the amount of refractive error present, your eye doctor will determine your exact prescription.
What are the treatment options?
Prescription glasses, contact lenses, and LASIK surgery (laser vision correction), Toric Intraocular Lens (T-IOL) are treatment options to optically correct astigmatism.

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Presbyopia

What is Presbyopia?
The word "presbyopia" comes from the Greek and means "elder eye". Presbyopia is the vision condition where as we age the crystalline lens of the eye loses its flexibility making it difficult to focus up close. After age 40, people begin to experience blurred vision at near points such as when reading or working on a computer. This happens to everyone when they age, even those individuals who have never had a prior vision problem.
What causes presbyopia?
Changes to the proteins in the lens of the eye cause the lens to harden gradually reducing flexibility. Age-related changes also take place in the muscle fibers surrounding the lens.
What are the symptoms?
Common signs of presbyopia include a tendency to hold reading materials at arms length, eye fatigue, and headaches.
How is Presbyopia diagnosed?
Presbyopia is detected during a comprehensive eye exam through a test called refraction. Using a phoropter, an instrument that determines the type and measures the amount of presbyopia present, your eye doctor will determine your exact prescription. Because the human lens will continue to change, as you grow older, your presbyopic prescription will increase over time.
What are the treatment options?
There are many options for the treatment of presbyopia: reading glasses, eyeglasses with progressive addition lenses, bi-focals, tri-focals and contact lenses are the most common. Multifocal Implants and accommodating implants are a surgical treatment of presbyopia as well.

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My Prescription

What does it mean?

-5.00 +1.25 x160

+/- 5.00 - This number represents the degree of nearsightedness or farsightedness. A "minus" symbol denotes nearsightedness while a "plus" symbol represents farsightedness. The higher the value, the more near or farsighted you are.

+/- 1.25 - This number identifies the degree of astigmatism. This value may be preceded by a "+" or "-" symbol x160 - The third number indicates the axis, or location, of the astigmatism.

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