The CEI retina fellowship is fully committed to training highly qualified vitreoretinal surgeons. Fellows begin this surgical training on July 1 and the learning curve is steep. Fellows average between 2 and 2.5 full days in the OR each week during the two years. Fellowship faculty are accustomed to running their own clinics without a fellow, and having the fellow in the OR is always prioritized over helping in clinic. Being such a large practice CEI draws patients from a large area, often with very complex pathology. In addition to learning basics of vitreoretinal surgery, including vitrectomy, scleral buckle, and macular surgery, fellows learn to treat extremely complex cases of PVR and diabetic tractional detachment. Fellows will perform many subretinal TPA injections and become skilled at secondary IOL placement. Two of the surgeons do all their cases using heads-up 3D surgery. Given the thriving cornea service at CEI and for many other reasons, endoscopic retina cases are performed weekly. CEI has a robust clinical trials program, which lends the opportunity to work with suprachoroidal surgical approaches and other novel surgical techniques. The fellows manage all the UC trauma cases that involve the posterior segment. Finally, the fellows participate in the bi-weekly pediatric retina cases at Cincinnati Childrens Hospital. Fellows will graduate with the ability to manage any case that they see when they start practice.